Main Article Content

Udochukwu Bola Akuru


This study is undertaken to highlight the competitive optimal performance of permanent magnet flux switching machines (PM–FSMs) in different wind generator drivetrains––low–speed (LS), medium–speed (MS) and high–speed (HS). The three–phase 12–stator slots/10–rotor teeth PM–FSM is utilised, for small–scale power applications. The design and optimisation is performed in a 2–D finite element analyses (FEA) tool. Thereafter, important features of the different wind generator drivetrains are evaluated and compared, especially in terms of cost of energy (CoE) versus performance. In the end, the study barely stops short of representing the MS as the best among the three drivetrains; however, it is clearly a preferred solution due to trade–offs in torque density and cost of generator.

Article Details


[1] E. de Vries, ABB shifts focus to medium speed drive systems, WINDPOWER Monthly, 4 September 2012.
[2] S. Schmidt and A. Vath, Comparison of existing medium–speed drive train concepts with a differential gearbox approach, European Wind Energy Association, EWEA, Copenhagen, pp. 179–186, April 2012
[3] W. Cao, Y. Xie and Z. Tan, Wind turbine generator technologies, InTech, 2012
[4] D–J Bang, H.P. Under, G. Shrestha and J. Ferreira, Promising direct–drive generator system for large wind turbines, Wind Power to the Grid Seminar, EPE–WECS, 2008
[5] S. E. Rauch and L. J. Johnson, Design principles of flux–switching alternators, AIEE Trans., 74(III), pp. 1261–1268, 1955
[6] M. Cheng, W. Hua, J. Zhang, and W. Zhao, Overview of stator–permanent magnet brushless machines, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 58(11), pp. 5087–5101, 2011
[7] U.B. Akuru and M.J. Kamper, Intriguing Behavioural Characteristics of Rare-Earth-Free Flux Switching Wind Generators at Small- and Large-Scale Power Levels, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
[8] J. Pyrhönen, T. Jokinen and V. Hrabovcova, Design of Rotating Electrical Machines, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: UK, 2008
[9] W. Hua, C. Ming, Z. Q. Zhu and D. Howe, Design of flux–switching permanent magnet machine considering the limitation of inverter and flux–weakening capability, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE Industry Applications Conference, 41st IAS Annual Meeting., vol.5, pp.2403–2410, 8–12 Oct. 2006
[10] E. Ilhan, M. F. J. Kremers, E. T. Motoasca, J. J. H. Paulides and E. A. Lomonova, Sensitivity analysis for phase inductances in Flux–Switching PM machines, XXth International Conference on Electrical Machines, Marseille, pp. 763–768, 2012
[11] K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal and T. Meyarivan, A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA–II, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6(2), pp. 182–197, Apr. 2002
[12] A. Fasolo, L. Alberti and N. Bianchi, Performance comparison between switching–flux and IPM machines with rare–earth and ferrite PMs, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 50(6), pp. 3708–3716, Nov. –Dec. 2014
[13] H. Polinder, F. F. A. van der Pijl, G. J. de Vilder and P. J. Tavner, Comparison of direct–drive and geared generator concepts for wind turbines, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 21(3), pp. 725–733, Sept. 2006
[14] E. B. Sulaiman, T. Kosaka and N. Matsui, Design study and experimental analysis of wound field flux switching motor for HEV applications, XXth International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), pp.1269–1275, 2–5 Sept. 2012
[15] I. Boldea, L. Tutelea and F. Blaabjerg, High power wind generator designs with less or no PMs: An overview, 17th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), pp.1–14, 22–25 Oct. 2014